Preposition-Kinds, Rules and Examples

May 24, 2023 - 21:57
May 25, 2023 - 09:52
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Preposition-Kinds, Rules and Examples
Preposition-Kinds, Rules and Examples

Preposition:

A preposition is a word or group of words that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in a sentence. It is used to indicate location, direction, time, manner, and other relationships. Some common prepositions include "in," "on," "at," "of," "from," "to," "for," "with," "by," and "about." Here are a few examples of how prepositions are used:

  1. She was born in August.
  2. They traveled by plane.
  3. He wrote a letter to his friend.
  4. We talked about the movie.
  5. She is sitting on the chair.
  6. The book is in the bag.
  7. We went to the park.
  8. He walked through the door.
  9. The cat is hiding under the table.
  10. The party starts at 8 p.m.

Kinds of Preposition:

There are several types of prepositions that serve different purposes in a sentence. Here are some common kinds of prepositions:

1. Preposition of time with examples
Prepositions of time are used to indicate when an action or event takes place. Here are some common prepositions of time along with examples:
  • "At": Used for specific points in time or when referring to a particular hour.

    • Example: "I will meet you at 3 p.m."
    • Example: "The train is scheduled to depart at 9:30 a.m."
  • "On": Used for specific days or dates.

    • Example: "We are going on vacation on Monday."
    • Example: "His birthday is on July 15th."
  • "In": Used for general periods of time, months, years, seasons, and longer durations.

    • Example: "She will finish her project in a week."
    • Example: "We usually go skiing in the winter."
    • Example: "He was born in 1990."

  • "During": Used to indicate a period of time in which something happens.

    • Example: "She studied hard during the exam week."
    • Example: "They went on a trip during the summer vacation."

  • "For": Used to indicate the duration of an action or event.

    • Example: "They have been waiting for an hour."
    • Example: "I will be on vacation for two weeks."
  • "Since": Used to indicate the starting point of an action or event.

    • Example: "She has been living in this city since 2010."
    • Example: "I have been studying English since I was a child."
  • "From" / "To" / "Until": Used to indicate the starting and ending points of a time period.

    • Example: "The office is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m."
    • Example: "The party will last until midnight."
2. Prepositions of Place with examples
Prepositions of place are used to indicate the location or position of something or someone. Here are some common prepositions of place along with examples:
  • "In": Used to indicate being inside an enclosed space or a general area.

    • Example: "She is sitting in the living room."
    • Example: "The cat is sleeping in the box."
  • "On": Used to indicate being on a surface or in a position directly above something.

    • Example: "The book is on the table."
    • Example: "He is standing on the chair."
  • "At": Used to indicate a specific location or position.

    • Example: "We will meet at the park."
    • Example: "They live at the end of the street."
  • "Under": Used to indicate being beneath or in a lower position than something.

    • Example: "The keys are under the pillow."
    • Example: "She found her wallet under the bed."
  • "Above": Used to indicate being higher or in a position directly over something.

    • Example: "The plane is flying above the clouds."
    • Example: "Hang the picture above the fireplace."
  • "Below": Used to indicate being lower or in a position directly beneath something.

    • Example: "The temperature dropped below freezing."
    • Example: "The fish are swimming below the surface."
  • "Behind": Used to indicate being in a position at the back of something or someone.

    • Example: "He is standing behind the tree."
    • Example: "The car is parked behind the building."
  • "Next to": Used to indicate being in a position adjacent or beside something or someone.

    • Example: "She sat next to her friend in the car."
    • Example: "The store is next to the post office."
  • "Between": Used to indicate being in a position or space separating two objects or people.

    • Example: "The house is between the two trees."
    • Example: "She was sitting between her parents."
  • "Across from": Used to indicate being in a position directly opposite something or someone.

    • Example: "The bank is across from the park."
    • Example: "Our house is across from their house."
3. Preposition of direction with examples
Prepositions of direction are used to indicate movement or the direction in which something or someone is going. Here are some common prepositions of direction along with examples:
  • "To": Used to indicate movement toward a specific destination.

    • Example: "She walked to the store."
    • Example: "He is traveling to Europe."
  • "From": Used to indicate movement away or origin from a specific place.

    • Example: "The train is coming from the station."
    • Example: "She moved from New York to Los Angeles."
  • "Into": Used to indicate movement or direction toward the inside or interior of something.

    • Example: "He jumped into the pool."
    • Example: "They entered into the building."
  • "Out of": Used to indicate movement or direction away from the inside or interior of something.

    • Example: "She climbed out of the cave."
    • Example: "He stepped out of the car."
  • "Towards": Used to indicate movement or direction in the general vicinity or proximity of something.

    • Example: "They walked towards the beach."
    • Example: "She pointed towards the mountains."
  • "Along": Used to indicate movement or direction in a parallel or adjacent path.

    • Example: "They walked along the riverbank."
    • Example: "He drove along the highway."
  • "Across": Used to indicate movement or direction from one side to the other side of something.

    • Example: "They swam across the river."
    • Example: "She walked across the bridge."
  • "Through": Used to indicate movement or direction into, across, or within something.

    • Example: "He ran through the forest."
    • Example: "The train travels through the tunnel."
  • "Up": Used to indicate movement or direction in an upward or elevated position.

    • Example: "She climbed up the stairs."
    • Example: "They hiked up the mountain."
  • "Down": Used to indicate movement or direction in a downward or lower position.

    • Example: "He slid down the slide."
    • Example: "They walked down the hill."
4. Preposition of location with examples
Prepositions of location are used to indicate the position or location of something or someone. Here are some common prepositions of location along with examples:
  • "In": Used to indicate being inside a three-dimensional space or within an enclosed area.

    • Example: "The cat is in the house."
    • Example: "She is sitting in the car."
  • "On": Used to indicate being in contact with or supported by a surface.

    • Example: "The book is on the table."
    • Example: "He is standing on the chair."
  • "At": Used to indicate a specific point or location.

    • Example: "We will meet at the park."
    • Example: "They live at the end of the street."
  • "Under": Used to indicate being beneath or in a lower position than something.

    • Example: "The keys are under the pillow."
    • Example: "She found her wallet under the bed."
  • "Above": Used to indicate being higher or in a position directly over something.

    • Example: "The painting is above the fireplace."
    • Example: "The plane is flying above the clouds."
  • "Below": Used to indicate being lower or in a position directly beneath something.

    • Example: "The temperature dropped below freezing."
    • Example: "The fish are swimming below the surface."
  • "Behind": Used to indicate being in a position at the back of something or someone.

    • Example: "He is standing behind the tree."
    • Example: "The car is parked behind the building."
  • "Next to": Used to indicate being in a position adjacent or beside something or someone.

    • Example: "She sat next to her friend in the car."
    • Example: "The store is next to the post office."
  • "Between": Used to indicate being in a position or space separating two objects or people.

    • Example: "The house is between the two trees."
    • Example: "She was sitting between her parents."
  • "Across from": Used to indicate being in a position directly opposite something or someone.

    • Example: "The bank is across from the park."
    • Example: "Our house is across from their house."
5. Preposition of special relationship with example
Prepositions of special relationship are used to indicate specific relationships or connections between people or things. Here are some common prepositions of special relationship along with examples:
  • "With": Used to indicate association, companionship, or possession.

    • Example: "She went to the party with her friends."
    • Example: "He is staying with his grandparents."
    • Example: "She plays the guitar with great skill."
  • "Of": Used to indicate possession, origin, or composition.

    • Example: "The book on the table is the property of the library."
    • Example: "The Statue of Liberty is a symbol of freedom."
    • Example: "A cup of coffee is on the counter."
  • "For": Used to indicate purpose, benefit, or duration of an action.

    • Example: "She bought flowers for her mother's birthday."
    • Example: "He is studying for the exam."
    • Example: "They have been friends for many years."
  • "To": Used to indicate direction, purpose, or recipient.

    • Example: "He gave a present to his sister."
    • Example: "She is going to the park."
    • Example: "They sent an invitation to all the guests."
  • "At": Used to indicate a specific time, place, or point.

    • Example: "We will meet at the restaurant."
    • Example: "The movie starts at 7 p.m."
    • Example: "He arrived at the airport."
  • "By": Used to indicate the means or method, authorship, or proximity.

    • Example: "She travels by train."
    • Example: "The painting was created by a famous artist."
    • Example: "He lives by the lake."
  • "Among": Used to indicate a shared or collective relationship within a group.

    • Example: "They distributed the tasks among themselves."
    • Example: "The prize was divided among the winners."
    • Example: "She found her place among the top performers."
  • "Between": Used to indicate a relationship or division between two entities.

    • Example: "The secret was kept between the two friends."
    • Example: "The decision is a compromise between the two parties."
    • Example: "She had to choose between two options."
6. Prepositional phrases
A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and includes a noun or pronoun, which is called the object of the preposition. Prepositional phrases provide additional information about location, time, direction, manner, or other relationships. Here are some examples of prepositional phrases:
  • "In the park":

    • Example: "We had a picnic in the park."
    • Example: "The children were playing soccer in the park."
  • "At the beach":

    • Example: "They built sandcastles at the beach."
    • Example: "We enjoyed a sunset walk at the beach."
  • "On the table":

    • Example: "The book is on the table."
    • Example: "She placed her keys on the table."
  • "With a smile":

    • Example: "He greeted everyone with a smile."
    • Example: "She completed the task with a smile on her face."
  • "From London":

    • Example: "He flew from London to Paris."
    • Example: "The package was shipped from London."
  • "By car":

    • Example: "They traveled to the mountains by car."
    • Example: "She commutes to work by car."
  • "During the concert":

    • Example: "They cheered loudly during the concert."
    • Example: "She lost her phone during the concert."
  • "With my friends":

    • Example: "I went to the movies with my friends."
    • Example: "She celebrated her birthday with her friends."
  • "Under the tree":

    • Example: "They found shade under the tree."
    • Example: "The dog was resting under the tree."
  • "At the office":

    • Example: "He works at the office."
    • Example: "She had a meeting at the office."
Placements of preposition:
Prepositions are typically placed before a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to indicate the relationship between that element and another word or group of words in the sentence. Here are some common placements of prepositions:
  1. Preposition + Noun: The preposition directly precedes a noun. For example:

    • "I went to the store."
    • "She sat on the chair."
    • "He lives in a big house."
  2. Preposition + Pronoun: The preposition is followed by a pronoun. For example:

    • "They walked with me."
    • "She talked to him."
    • "He is waiting for us."
  3. Preposition + Noun Phrase: The preposition is followed by a noun phrase, which includes a noun and any modifiers. For example:

    • "She is interested in art history."
    • "The key is under the mat."
    • "They had a picnic by the river."
  4. Preposition + Clause: The preposition is followed by a clause, which includes a subject and a verb. For example:

    • "I am proud of what you achieved."
    • "They are worried about whether it will rain."
    • "She is confident that she will succeed."
  5. Preposition + Gerund: The preposition is followed by a gerund (-ing form of a verb). For example:

    • "They apologized for being late."
    • "He is excited about traveling."
    • "She dreams of becoming a doctor."

Frequently confused preposition

There are several prepositions in the English language that are commonly confused due to their similar meanings or usage. Here are a few examples of frequently confused prepositions:

1. Since vs For

  • "Since":

    • "Since" is used to indicate a specific point in time or the starting point of an action or event.
    • It is often used with a specific time or date, a clause with a verb in the past tense, or the present perfect tense.
    • Example: "I have been working here since 2010." (indicating the starting point of working at the company)
    • Example: "He has been studying since he woke up." (indicating the starting point of studying after waking up)
  • "For":

    • "For" is used to indicate a duration of time or the length of time an action or event has occurred.
    • It is often used with a specific length of time, such as hours, days, months, or years.
    • Example: "She has been living in this city for five years." (indicating the duration of living in the city)
    • Example: "They have been friends for a long time." (indicating the length of their friendship)

2. Beside vs Besides

  • "Beside":

    • "Beside" indicates a physical position or location next to or alongside something or someone.
    • It refers to being by the side of an object or person.
    • Example: "She sat beside her friend in the movie theater."
    • Example: "The book is on the table beside the lamp."
  • "Besides":

    • "Besides" has multiple meanings and usage.
    • It is often used to indicate in addition to or apart from something or someone.
    • It introduces additional information or a different aspect of a topic.
    • Example: "Besides studying, she enjoys playing the piano." (indicating an additional activity)
    • Example: "I have nothing else to do besides work." (indicating exclusion of other options)

3. "In" vs. "Into":

  • "In" indicates location or position within something.
  • Example: "She is sitting in the car."
  • "Into" indicates movement or direction towards the inside of something.
  •  Example: "She got into the car."

4. "On" vs. "Upon":

  • "On" indicates contact or position above or resting upon something. 
  • Example: "The book is on the table."
  • "Upon" is more formal and can also indicate contact or position above or resting upon something.
  •  Example: "Once upon a time..."

5. "At" vs. "To":

  • "At" indicates a specific location or position.
  • Example: "He is waiting at the bus stop."
  • "To" indicates movement or direction towards a specific location or person.
  •  Example: "She went to the store."

6. "From" vs. "Than":

  • "From" indicates origin or starting point.
    •  Example: "He is from Canada."
  •  
  • "Than" is used for making comparisons. 
    • Example: "She is taller than her brother."

7. "Between" vs. "Among":

  • "Between" is used when referring to relationships involving two separate entities or individuals.
    •  Example: "The book is between John and Sarah."
  • "Among" is used when referring to relationships involving more than two entities or individuals. 
    • Example: "They divided the cake among themselves."

8.  "Of" vs. "From":

  • "Of" indicates possession, origin, or relationship.
    •  Example: "The pages of the book."
  • "From" indicates the source or starting point. 
    • Example: "She received a gift from her friend."

Exercise: 1 for practice

  1. She arrived __________ the party late. a) in b) at c) to

  2. The book is __________ the table. a) on b) upon c) over

  3. They traveled __________ plane. a) on b) with c) by

  4. He is interested __________ learning French. a) in b) for c) with

  5. She apologized __________ her mistake. a) for b) to c) with

  6. The keys are __________ the desk. a) on b) at c) in

  7. I have been waiting __________ an hour. a) since b) for c) to

  8. He prefers coffee __________ tea. a) than b) to c) from

  9. They divided the cake __________ themselves. a) between b) among c) amid

  10. We went __________ the movie theater. a) to b) at c) for

Answers:

  1. b) at
  2. a) on
  3. c) by
  4. a) in
  5. a) for
  6. a) on
  7. b) for
  8. b) to
  9. b) among
  10. a) to

Exercise: 2 for practice

  1. The cat jumped __________ the table. a) in b) on c) at

  2. She arrived __________ the party late. a) in b) at c) on

  3. The book is __________ the shelf. a) on b) at c) in

  4. They traveled __________ plane. a) on b) by c) with

  5. The meeting starts __________ 9 a.m. a) at b) on c) in

  6. He apologized __________ being rude. a) for b) to c) at

  7. We walked __________ the park. a) in b) on c) at

  8. She is interested __________ art history. a) on b) in c) at

  9. The keys are __________ the drawer. a) in b) on c) at

  10. We talked __________ the phone. a) on b) by c) with

Answers:

  1. b) on
  2. a) at
  3. a) on
  4. b) by
  5. a) at
  6. a) for
  7. a) in
  8. b) in
  9. a) in
  10. a) on

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Madhuri Mahto I am self dependent and hard working. Knowledge sharing helps to connect with others , It is a way you can give knowledge without any deprivation.