Pronouns - Definition, Kinds with examples.

May 21, 2023 - 12:31
May 22, 2023 - 13:47
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Pronouns - Definition, Kinds with examples.
Pronouns - Definition, Kinds with examples.

Pronouns

Pronouns are words that are used in place of nouns to refer to people, objects, or concepts. They help us avoid repetition and make our language more efficient. Some common pronouns include "he," "she," "it," "they," "we," and "you."

It seems like you may be referring to personal pronouns, which are pronouns used to refer to individuals. Personal pronouns can vary depending on the person's gender identity and preferred pronouns. Traditional personal pronouns include "he" for males and "she" for females. However, many people may use non-binary pronouns such as "they/them". 

Pronouns are generally classified into three main kinds:

  • First Person Pronoun- I, Me (Singular Pronoun) and We, Us (Plural Pronoun)
  • Second Person Pronoun- You, Your (Singular Pronoun) and You (Plural Pronoun).
  • Third Person Pronoun- He, She, It, Him, Her (Singular Pronoun) and They, Them, Their (Plural Pronoun).

Kinds of Pronouns

There are several kinds of pronouns, each serving a different grammatical function or referring to different entities. Here are some common types of pronouns:

  1. Personal Pronouns: These pronouns refer to specific persons or things. They include "I," "you," "he," "she," "it," "we," and "they."

  2. Possessive Pronouns: These pronouns indicate ownership or possession. Examples include "mine," "yours," "his," "hers," "its," "ours," and "theirs."

  3. Reflexive Pronouns: Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and the object of a sentence refer to the same person or thing. Examples include "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves."

  4. Demonstrative Pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns are used to point to or identify specific people or things. Examples include "this," "that," "these," and "those."

  5. Interrogative Pronouns: These pronouns are used to ask questions. Examples include "who," "whom," "whose," "which," and "what."

  6. Relative Pronouns: Relative pronouns are used to connect a dependent clause to a main clause in a sentence. Examples include "who," "whom," "whose," "which," and "that."

  7. Indefinite Pronouns: These pronouns refer to nonspecific persons or things. Examples include "anyone," "someone," "everybody," "nothing," "something," "all," "few," "many," and "several."

  8. Reciprocal Pronouns: These pronouns are used when two or more people or things are reciprocally involved in an action. Examples include "each other" and "one another."

  9. Intensive Pronouns: Intensive pronouns are used to emphasize a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Examples include "myself," "yourself," "himself," "herself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves."

1. Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are a specific type of pronoun that refer to people or things. They vary based on grammatical person (first person, second person, third person) and number (singular or plural). Here are the personal pronouns:

  • First Person Singular:

    • Subject: I
    • Object: me
    • Possessive adjective: my/mine
    • Possessive pronoun: mine
    • Reflexive: myself
  • Second Person Singular:

    • Subject: you
    • Object: you
    • Possessive adjective: your/yours
    • Possessive pronoun: yours
    • Reflexive: yourself
  • Third Person Singular:

    • Subject: he, she, it
    • Object: him, her, it
    • Possessive adjective: his, her, its
    • Possessive pronoun: his, hers, its
    • Reflexive: himself, herself, itself
  • First Person Plural:

    • Subject: we
    • Object: us
    • Possessive adjective: our/ours
    • Possessive pronoun: ours
    • Reflexive: ourselves
  • Second Person Plural:

    • Subject: you
    • Object: you
    • Possessive adjective: your/yours
    • Possessive pronoun: yours
    • Reflexive: yourselves
  • Third Person Plural:

    • Subject: they
    • Object: them
    • Possessive adjective: their/theirs
    • Possessive pronoun: theirs
    • Reflexive: themselves

2. Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns are used to indicate ownership or possession. They replace a noun phrase to show that something belongs to someone or something. Here are the most common possessive pronouns:

  • "Mine" is used to indicate that something belongs to the speaker.

    • Example: "The book is mine."
  • "Yours" is used to indicate that something belongs to the person or people being spoken to.

    • Example: "Is this pen yours?"
  • "His" is used to indicate that something belongs to a male person or singular noun.

    • Example: "The car is his."
  • "Hers" is used to indicate that something belongs to a female person or singular noun.

    • Example: "The jacket is hers."
  • "Its" is used to indicate that something belongs to a thing or animal (neutral gender).

    • Example: "The cat licked its paws."
  • "Ours" is used to indicate that something belongs to the speaker and other people.

    • Example: "The house is ours."
  • "Theirs" is used to indicate that something belongs to other people.

    • Example: "The keys are theirs."

3. Reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject of a sentence performs an action on itself. They reflect or refer back to the subject of the sentence. Here are the reflexive pronouns:

  • "Myself" is used for the first person singular.

    • Example: "I hurt myself."
  • "Yourself" is used for the second person singular.

    • Example: "You should take care of yourself."
  • "Himself" is used for the third person singular (masculine).

    • Example: "He cut himself while shaving."
  • "Herself" is used for the third person singular (feminine).

    • Example: "She congratulated herself on the achievement."
  • "Itself" is used for the third person singular (neutral).

    • Example: "The cat cleaned itself."
  • "Ourselves" is used for the first person plural.

    • Example: "We need to remind ourselves of our goals."
  • "Yourselves" is used for the second person plural.

    • Example: "You should enjoy yourselves at the party."
  • "Themselves" is used for the third person plural.

    • Example: "They helped themselves to the food."

4. Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are used to point to or identify specific people, things, or ideas. They indicate the relative position in space or time of the noun they are replacing. The most common demonstrative pronouns are "this," "that," "these," and "those." Here's how they are typically used:

  • "This" is used to refer to a singular object or person that is near the speaker in space or time.

    • Example: "This book is interesting."
  • "That" is used to refer to a singular object or person that is farther from the speaker in space or time.

    • Example: "That car is expensive."
  • "These" is used to refer to multiple objects or people that are near the speaker in space or time.

    • Example: "These flowers are beautiful."
  • "Those" is used to refer to multiple objects or people that are farther from the speaker in space or time.

    • Example: "Those houses are old."

5. Interrogative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions and gather information about people or things. They are used to introduce a question and are often followed by a verb or the rest of the sentence. Here are some common interrogative pronouns:

  • "Who" is used to ask about people and their identities.

    • Example: "Who is the new employee?"
  • "Whom" is used to ask about the object of an action or the person who receives the action.

    • Example: "Whom did you invite to the party?"
  • "Whose" is used to ask about possession or ownership.

    • Example: "Whose book is this?"
  • "Which" is used to ask about a choice or selection among a group of things or people.

    • Example: "Which color do you prefer?"
  • "What" is used to ask about things, actions, or situations.

    • Example: "What time is it?"
  • "Where" is used to ask about a location or place.

    • Example: "Where is the nearest grocery store?"
  • "When" is used to ask about a specific time or period.

    • Example: "When is the meeting?"
  • "Why" is used to ask about the reason or cause.

    • Example: "Why did you choose that option?"
  • "How" is used to ask about the manner, method, or condition.

    • Example: "How did you solve the problem?"

6. Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns are used to introduce relative clauses, which provide additional information about a noun or pronoun in a sentence. They connect the main clause with the subordinate clause and relate the information in the two clauses. Here are the most common relative pronouns:

  • "Who" is used to refer to people.

    • Example: "The woman who lives next door is a doctor."
  • "Whom" is used to refer to people as the object of a verb or preposition.

    • Example: "The teacher whom we met yesterday is very kind."
  • "Which" is used to refer to things or animals.

    • Example: "The book which I borrowed from the library is excellent."
  • "That" is used to refer to both people and things.

    • Example: "The car that I bought last week is red."
  • "Whose" is used to indicate possession.

    • Example: "The student whose bag was stolen reported the incident."
  • "Where" is used to refer to a place or location.

    • Example: "I visited the city where I was born."
  • "When" is used to refer to a specific time or period.

    • Example: "The day when we met was unforgettable."

7. Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are used to refer to nonspecific or unknown people, things, or quantities. They are used when we don't need to specify the exact identity or number of the noun being referred to. Here are some common indefinite pronouns:

  • "Anyone" refers to any person.

    • Example: "Anyone can join the club."
  • "Someone" refers to a person of unspecified identity.

    • Example: "Someone is at the door."
  • "Everyone" refers to all people.

    • Example: "Everyone enjoyed the party."
  • "No one" refers to nobody or not a single person.

    • Example: "No one knows the answer."
  • "Somebody" refers to an unspecified person.

    • Example: "Somebody left their phone behind."
  • "Everybody" refers to all people.

    • Example: "Everybody should be present at the meeting."
  • "Nobody" refers to no person.

    • Example: "Nobody likes being criticized."
  • "Something" refers to an unspecified thing.

    • Example: "There is something strange about that house."
  • "Anything" refers to any thing or any matter.

    • Example: "You can choose anything from the menu."
  • "Nothing" refers to no thing or absence of anything.

    • Example: "There's nothing to worry about."

8. Reciprocal pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns are used to indicate a mutual action or relationship between two or more people or things. They show that the action is reciprocated or shared among the individuals involved. Here are the reciprocal pronouns:

  • "Each other" is used to refer to two individuals or groups.

    • Example: "They love each other."
  • "One another" is used to refer to more than two individuals or groups.

    • Example: "The team members support one another."

9. Intensive pronouns or emphatic pronouns

Intensive pronouns, also known as emphatic pronouns, are used to emphasize or intensify a noun or pronoun in a sentence. They are identical in form to reflexive pronouns but serve a different grammatical function. Here are the intensive pronouns:

  • "Myself" emphasizes the first person singular.

    • Example: "I myself completed the project."
  • "Yourself" emphasizes the second person singular.

    • Example: "You yourself are responsible for your actions."
  • "Himself" emphasizes the third person singular (masculine).

    • Example: "He himself fixed the car."
  • "Herself" emphasizes the third person singular (feminine).

    • Example: "She herself designed the dress."
  • "Itself" emphasizes the third person singular (neutral).

    • Example: "The computer itself crashed."
  • "Ourselves" emphasizes the first person plural.

    • Example: "We ourselves organized the event."
  • "Yourselves" emphasizes the second person plural.

    • Example: "You yourselves are responsible for your decisions."
  • "Themselves" emphasizes the third person plural.

    • Example: "They themselves completed the task."

Underline the pronoun and state their kind

  1. That is beautiful.
  2. They have lost everything in the earthquake.
  3. My garden is pretty. Yours is prettier.
  4. You should not blame yourself for the accident. 
  5. They are talking to each other. 
  6. Can anyone fix the computer?
  7. I completed the job myself. 
  8. All the essays were good, but his was the best. 
  9. She herself spoke to the teacher.
  10. Indira does not like him. 
  11. Can you see those?
  12. Who said that?
  13. The two kitten love each other. 
  14. I am teaching myself to play the tabla.
  15. Whom did you meet at the mall?

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Madhuri Mahto I am self dependent and hard working. Knowledge sharing helps to connect with others , It is a way you can give knowledge without any deprivation.